# YAO Chi-Chih

### Academic Posts

Dean, Institute for Interdisciplinary Information Sciences, Tsinghua University

Professor, Center for Advanced Study, Tsinghua University

Member, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS)

Fellow, American Academy of Arts & Sciences

Member, US National Academy of Sciences

### Research Interests

- Computer Algorithms
- Computational Complexity
- Communication Complexity
- Cryptographic Protocols
- Quantum Computing
- Computational Economics
- Artificial Intelligence

### Professional Experiences

1975-1976 Assistant Professor, Mathematics Department, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

1976-1981 Assistant Professor, Computer Science Department, Stanford University

1981-1982 Professor, Computer Science Division, University of California, Berkeley

1982-1986 Professor, Computer Science Department, Stanford University

1986-2004 William and Edna Macaleer Professor of Engineering and Applied Science, Princeton University

2004-present Professor, Center for Advanced Study, Tsinghua University

2005-present Distinguished Professor-At-Large, The Chinese University of Hong Kong

2011-present Dean, Institute for Interdisciplinary Information Sciences, Tsinghua University

### Education

1967, National Taiwan University, B.S., Physics

1972, Harvard University, Ph.D., Physics

1975, University of Illinois, Ph.D., Computer Science

### Awards & Honors

1987 George Polya Prize

1991 Guggenheim Fellowship

1995 Fellow, Association for Computing Machinery

1996 Donald E. Knuth Prize

2000 A.M. Turing Award

2000 Member, Academia Sinica

2003 Pan Wen-Yuan Research Award

2003 Doctor of Science, Honoris Causa, City University of Hong Kong

2003 Fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science

2004 Doctor of Engineering, Honoris Causa, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology

2004 Alumni Award for Distinguished Service, College of Engineering University of Illinois

2006 Doctor of Science, Honoris Causa, the Chinese University of Hong Kong

2009 Doctor of Mathematics, Honoris Causa, University of Waterloo

2010 International Association for Cryptologic Research Fellow (IACR) 2012 Doctor of Science, Honoris Causa, University of Macau

2014 Doctor of Science, Honoris Causa, the Hong Kong Polytechnic University

### Selected Publications

1. "Divergences of Massive Yang-Mills Theories: Higher Groups", (with S. L. Glashow and J. Illiopoulos), Physical Review, D4 (1971), 1918-1919.

2. "Standing Pion Waves in Superdense Matter", (with R. F. Sawyer), Physical Review, D7 (1973), 1579-1586.

3. "An O (|E| log log |V|) Algorithm for Finding Minimum Spanning Trees", Information Processing Letters, 4 (1975), 21-23.

4. "Analysis of the Subtractive Algorithms for Greatest Common Divisors", (with D. E. Knuth), Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 72 (1975), 4720-4722.

5. "On Computing the Minima of Quadratic Forms", Proceedings of Seventh ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing (STOC1975), Albuquerque, New Mexico, May 1975, 23-26.

6. "The Complexity of Non-uniform Random Number Generation" ,(with D. E. Knuth), in Algorithms and Complexity: New Directions and Recent Results, edited by J. F. Traub, Academic Press, 1976, pp.357-428.

7. "On the Evaluation of Powers", SIAM J. on Computing, 5 (1976), 100-103.

8. "Resource Constrained Scheduling as Generalized Bin Packing", (with M. R. Garey, R. L. Graham and D. S. Johnson), J. of Combinatorial Theory, A21 (1976), 257-298.

9. "Bounds on Merging Networks", (with F. F. Yao), Journal of ACM, 23 (1976), 566-571. 10. "Tiling with Incomparable Rectangles", (with E. M. Reingold and W. Sanders), Journal of Recreational Mathematics, 8 (1976), 112-119.

11. "A Combinatorial Optimization Problem Related to Data Set Allocation", (with C. K. Wong), Revue Francaise D'Automatique, Informatique, Recherche Operationnelle, Suppl. No. 5 (1976), 83-96.

12. "On a Problem of Katona on Minimal Separation Systems", Discrete Mathematics, 15 (1976), 193-199.

13. "An Almost Optimal Algorithm for Unbounded Searching", (with J. Bentley), Information Processing Letters, 5 (1976), 82-87.

14. "On the Average Behavior of Set Merging Algorithms", Proceedings of Eighth ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing (STOC1976), Hershey, Pennsylvania, May 1976, 192-195.

15. "The Complexity of Searching an Ordered Random Table", (with F. F. Yao), Proceedings of Seventeenth IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science (FOCS1976), Houston, Texas, October 1976, 222-227.

16. "Probabilistic Computations: Toward a Unified Measure of Complexity", Proceedings of Eighteenth IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science (FOCS1977), Providence, Rhode Island, October 1977, 222-227.

17. "On the Loop Switching Addressing Problem", SIAM J. on Computing, 7 (1978), 82-87.

18. "On Random 2-3 Trees", Acta Informatica, 9 (1978), 159-170.

19. "K + 1 Heads are Better than K", (with R. L. Rivest), Journal of ACM, 25 (1978), 337-340.

20. "Addition Chains with Multiplicative Cost", (with R. L. Graham and F. F. Yao), Discrete Mathematics, 23 (1978), 115-119.

21. "The Complexity of Pattern Matching for a Random String", SIAM J. on Computing, 8 (1979), 368-387.

22. "A Note on a Conjecture of Kam and Ullman Concerning Statistical Databases ",Information Processing Letters, 9 (1979), 48-50.

23. "Storing a Sparse Table", (with R. E. Tarjan), Communications of ACM, 22 (1979), 606-611.

24. "On Some Complexity Questions in Distributive Computing", Proceedings of Eleventh ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing (STOC1979), Atlanta, Georgia, May 1979, 209-213.

25. "External Hashing Schemes for Collections of Data Structures", (with R. J. Lipton and A. L. Rosenberg), Journal of ACM, 27 (1980), 81-95.

26. "New Algorithms for Bin Packing", Journal of ACM, 27 (1980), 207-227.

27. "Information Bounds are Weak for the Shortest Distance Problem", (with R. L. Graham and F. F. Yao), Journal of ACM, 27, (1980), 428-444.

28. "A Stochastic Model of Bin Packing", (with E. G. Coffman, Jr., M. Hofri and K. So), Information and Control, 44 (1980), 105-115.

29. "An Analysis of Shellsort", Journal of Algorithms, 1 (1980), 14-50.

30. "On the Polyhedral Decision Problem", (with R. L. Rivest), SIAM J. on Computing, 9 (1980), 343-347.

31. "Bounds on Selection Networks", SIAM J. on Computing, 9 (1980), 566-582.

32. "Some Monotonicity Properties of Partial Orders", (with R. L. Graham and F. F. Yao), SIAM J. on Algebraic and Discrete Methods, 1 (1980), 251-258.

33. "A Note on the Analysis of Extendible Hashing", Information Processing Letters, 11 (1980), 84-86.

34. "Optimal Expected-Time Algorithm for Closest-point Problems", (with J. L. Bentley and B. W. Weide), ACM Trans. on Math. Software, 6 (1980), 561-580.

35. "Efficient Searching via Partial Ordering", (with A. Borodin, L. J. Guibas and N. A. Lynch), Information Processing Letters, 12 (1981), 71-75.

36. "An Analysis of a Memory Allocation Scheme for Implementing Stacks", SIAM J. on Computing, 10 (1981), 398-403.

37. "Should Tables be Sorted?", Journal of ACM, 28 (1981), 615-628.

38. "A Lower Bound for Finding Convex Hulls", Journal of ACM, 28 (1981), 780-787.

39. "The Entropic Limitations on VLSI Computations", Proceedings of Thirteenth ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing (STOC1981), Milwaukee, Wisconsin, May 1981, 308-311.

40. "Average-case Complexity of Selecting the k-th Best", (with F. F. Yao), SIAM J. on Computing, 11 (1982), 428-447.

41. "The Complexity of Finding Cycles in Periodic Functions", (with R. Sedgewick and T. G. Szymanski), SIAM J. on Computing, 11 (1982), 376-390.

42. "On the Time-Space Tradeoff for Sorting with Linear Queries", Theoretical Computer Science, 19 (1982), 203-218.

43. "Lower Bounds to Algebraic Decision Trees", (with J. M. Steele, Jr.), Journal of Algorithms, 3 (1982),1-8.

44. "On Parallel Computation for the Knapsack Problem", Journal of ACM, 29 (1982), 898-903.

45. "On Constructing Minimum Spanning Trees in k-dimensional Spaces and Related Problems", SIAM J. on Computing, 11 (1982), 721-736.

46. "Equal Justice for Unequal Shares of the Cake", (with M. Klawe), Congressus Numerantium, 36 (1982), 247-260.

47. "Rearrangeable Networks with Limited Depth", (with N. Pippenger), SIAM J. on Algebraic and Discrete Methods, 3 (1982), 411-417.
48. "Space-Time Tradeoff for Answering Range Queries", Proceedings of Fourteenth ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing (STOC 1982), San Francisco, California, May 1982, 128-136.

49. "Theory and Applications of Trapdoor Functions", Proceedings of Twenty-third IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science (FOCS1982), Chicago, Illinois, November 1982, 80-91.

50. "Protocols for Secure Computations", Proceedings of Twenty-third IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science (FOCS1982), Chicago, Illinois, November 1982, 160-164.

51. "On the Security of Public Key Protocols", (with D. Dolev), IEEE Trans. on Information Theory, 29 (1983), 198-208.

52. "Strong Signature Schemes", (with S. Goldwasser and S. Micali), Proceedings of Fifteenth ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing (STOC1983), Boston, Massachusetts, April 1983, 431-439

53. "Lower Bounds by Probabilistic Arguments", Proceedings of Twenty-fourth IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science (FOCS1983), Tucson, Arizona, November 1983, 420-428.

54. "Context-free Grammars and Random Number Generation", Proceedings of NATO Workshop on Combinatorial Algorithms on Words, Maratea, Italy, July 1984, edited by A. Apostolico and Z. Galil, Academic Press, 357-361.

55. "Fault-tolerant Networks for Sorting", (with F. F. Yao), SIAM J. on Computing, 14 (1985), 120-128.

56. "On the Expected Performance of Path Compression", SIAM J. on Computing, 14 (1985), 129-133.

57. "On Optimal Arrangements of Keys with Double Hashing", Journal of Algorithms, 6 (1985), 253-264.

58. "Uniform Hashing is Optimal", Journal of the ACM, 32 (1985), 687-693.

59. "On the Complexity of Maintaining Partial Sums", SIAM J. on Computing, 14 (1985), 253-264.

60. "A General Approach to d-dimensional Geometric Queries", (with F. F. Yao), Proceedings of Seventeenth ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing (STOC1985), Providence, Rhode Island, May 1985, 163-168.

61. "Separating the Polynomial-time Hierarchy by Oracles", Proceedings of Twenty-sixth IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science (FOCS1985), Eugene, Oregon, October 1985, 1-10.

62. "How to Generate and Exchange Secrets", Proceedings of Twenty-seventh IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science (FOCS1986), Toronto, Canada, October 1986, 162-167.

63. "Monotone Bipartite Graph Properties are Evasive", SIAM J. on Computing, 17 (1988), 517-520.

64. "Computational Information Theory", in Complexity in Information Theory, edited by Y. Abu-Mostafa, Springer-Verlag, 1988, 1-15.

65. "Selecting the k Largest with Median Tests", Algorithmica, 4 (1989), 293-300.

66. "On the Complexity of Partial Order Productions", SIAM J. on Computing, 18 (1989), 679-689.

67. "On the Improbability of Reaching Byzantine Agreement", (with R. L. Graham) Proceedings of Twenty-First ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing (STOC1989), Seattle, Washington, May 1989, 467-478.

68. "Circuits and Local Computations", Proceedings of Twenty First ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing (STOC1989), Seattle, Washington, May 1989, 186-196.

69. "Computing Boolean Functions with Unreliable Tests", (with C. Kenyon-Mathieu) International Journal of Foundations of Computer Science, 1 (1990), 1-10.

70. "Coherent Functions and Program Checkers", Proceedings of Twenty-second ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing (STOC1990), Baltimore, Maryland, May 1990, 84-94.

71. "On ACC and Threshold Circuits", Proceedings of Thirty-first IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science (FOCS1990), October 1990, 619-627.

72. "Lower Bounds to Randomized Algorithms for Graph Properties", Journal of Computer and System Sciences, 42 (1991), 267-287.

73. "Lower Bounds for Algebraic Computation Trees with Integer Inputs", SIAM J. On Computing, 20 (1991), 655-668.

74. "Program Checkers for Probability Generation", (with S. Kannan) Proceedings of Eighteenth International Colloqui

75. "Linear Decision Trees: Volume Estimates and Topological Bounds", (with A. BjÖrner and L. Lovász) Proceedings of Twenty-fourth ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing (STOC1992), May 1992, 170-177.

76. "A Circuit-Based Proof of Toda's Theorem", (with R. Kannan, H. Venkateswaran and V. Vinay) Information and Computation, 104 (1993), 271-276.

77. "Towards Uncheatable Benchmarks", (with J. Cai, R. Lipton, and R. Sedgewick) Proceedings of Eighth IEEE Annual Structure in Complexity Conference, San Diego, California, May 1993, 2-11.

78. "Quantum Circuit Complexity", Proceedings of Thirty-fourth IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science (FOCS1993), Palo Alto, California, November 1993, 352-361.

79. "A Randomized Algorithm for Maximum Finding with Parity Tests", (with H. F. Ting), Information Processing Letters, 49 (1994), 39-43.

80. "Near-Optimal Time-Space Tradeoff for Element Distinctness", SIAM J. On Computing, 23 (1994), 966-975.

81. "A Lower Bound for the Monotone Depth of Connectivity", Proceedings of Thirty-fifth IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science (FOCS1994), Santa Fe, New Mexico, November 1994, 302-308.

82. "On Computing Algebraic Functions Using Logarithms and Exponentials", (with D. Grigoriev and M. Singer) SIAM J. on Computing, 24 (1995), 242-246.

83. "Algebraic Decision Trees and Euler Characteristics", Theoretical Computer Science, 141 (1995), 133-150.

84. "On the Shrinkage Exponent for Read-Once Formulae", (with J. Hastad and A. Razborov), Theoretical Computer Science, 141 (1995), 269-282.

85. "Minimean Optimal Key Arrangements in Hash Tables", Algorithmica, 14 (1995), 409-428.

86. "Security of Quantum Protocols Against Coherent Measurements", Proceedings of Twenty-seventh ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing (STOC1995), Las Vegas, Nevada, May 1995, 67-75.

87. "Decision Tree Complexity and Betti Numbers", Journal of Computer and Systems Sciences, 55 (1997), 36-43.

88. "Dictionary Look-Up with One Error", (with F. F. Yao), Journal of Algorithms, 25 (1997), 194-202.

89. "Read-Once Branching Programs, Rectangular Proofs of the Pigeonhole Principle and the Transversal Calculus", (with A. Razborov and A. Wigderson), Proceedings of Twenty-ninth ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing (STOC1997), May 1997, 739-784.

90. "RAPID: Randomized Pharmacophore Identification for Drug Design", (with L. Kavraki, J. Latombe, R. Motwani, C. Shelton, and S. Venkatasubramanian), Proceedings of 1997 ACM Symposium on Applied Computational Geometry, Nice, France, 1997, 324-333.

91. "A Lower Bound on the Size of Algebraic Decision Trees for the MAX Problem", (with D. Grigoriev and M. Karpinski), Computational Complexity, 7 (1998), 193-203.

92. "Quantum Cryptography with Imperfect Apparatus", (with D. Mayers), Proceedings of Thirty-ninth IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science (FOCS1998), October 1998, 503-509.

93. "NQP C = co - C = P", (with T. Yamakami), Information Processing Letters, 71 (1999), 63-69.

94. "Quantum Bit Escrow", (with A. Aharonov, A. Ta-Shma and U. Vazirani), Proceedings of Thirty-second ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing (STOC2000), May 2000, 715-724.

95. "Informational Complexity and the Direct Sum Problem for Simultaneous Message Complexity", (with A. Chakrabarti, Y. Shi and A. Wirth), Proceedings of Forty-second IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science (FOCS2001), October 2001, 270-278.

96. "Classical Physics and the Church-Turing Thesis", Journal of ACM, 50 (2003), 100-105.

97. "On the Power of Quantum Fingerprinting", Proceedings of Thirty-fifth ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing (STOC2003), June 2003, 77-81.

98. "Graph Properties and Circular Functions: How Low Can Quantum Query Complexity Go?" (with X. Sun and S. Zhang), Proceedings of 19th IEEE Conference on Computational Complexity (CCC2004), Amherst, Massachusetts, June 2004, 286-293.

99. "Graph Entropy and Quantum Sorting Problems", Proceedings of Thirty-sixth ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing (STOC2004), June 2004, 112-117.

100. "Incentive Compatible Price Sequence in Dynamic Auctions", (with N. Chen, X. Deng and X. Sun), Proceedings of Thirty-first International Colloquium on Automata, Languages and Programming, Turku, Finland, July 2004 (Lecture Notes in Computer Science # 3142, Springer), 320-331.

101. "Fisher Equilibrium Price with a Class of Concave Utility Functions" (with N. Chen, X. Deng and X. Sun), Proceedings of Twelfth Annual European Symposium on Algorithms, Bergen, Norway, September 2004 (Lecture Notes in Computer Science # 3221, Springer), 169-179.

102. "Discrete and Continuous Min-energy Schedules for Variable Voltage Processors", (with M. Li and F. Yao), Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 103 (2006), 3983-3987.

103. "On the Quantum Query Complexity of Local Search in Two and Three Dimensions", (With Xiaoming Sun), Proceedings of 47th Annual IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science (FOCS2006), Berkeley, CA, October 2006, 429-438.

104. "Oblivious and Adaptive Strategies for the Majority and Plurality Problems," (with F. Chung, R. Graham and J. Mao), Algorithmica, 48 (2007), 147-157.

105. "Generalized Tsirelson Inequalities, Commuting-Operator Provers, and Multi-Prover Interactive Proof Systems," (with T. Ito, H. Kobayashi, and X. Sun), Proceedings of 23rd IEEE Conference on Computational Complexity (CCC2008), Amherst, Massachusetts (2008), 187-198.

106. "Graph Design for Secure Multiparty Computation over Non-Abelian Groups," (with X. Sun and C. Tartary), Proceedings of 2008 AsiaCrypt, 37-53.

107. "A Note on Universal Composable Zero Knowledge in Common Reference String Model," (with F. Yao and Y. Zhao), Theoretical Computer Science (2009), 1099-1108.

108. "A Note on the Feasibility of Generalized Universal Composability," (with F. Yao and Y. Zhao), Mathematical Structure in Computer Science (2009), 193-205.

109. "Concurrent Knowledge Extraction in the Public-Key Model," (with M. Yung and Y. Zhao), Proceedings of International Colloquium on Automata, Languages and Programming (ICALP), (Lecture Notes in Computer Science # 6198, Springer), July 2010, 702-714.

110. Deniable Internet Key Exchange," (with Y. Zhao), Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Applied Cryptography and Network Security (ACNS), Beijing, China, June 2010, (Lecture Notes in Computer Science # 6123, Springer), 329-348.

111. Tight Approximation Ratio of a General Greedy Splitting Algorithm for the Minimum k-Way Cut Problem," (with M. Xiao and L. Cai), Algorithmica 59 (2011), 510-520.

112. “Graph Coloring Applied to Secure Computation in Non-Abelian Groups,” (with Y. Desmedt, J. Pieprzyk, R. Steinfeld, X. Sun, C. Tartary, and H. Wang), Journal of Cryptology, 25 (2012), 557-600.

113. “Online/Offline Signatures for Low-Power Devices," (with Y. Zhao), IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, 8 (2013), 283-294.

114. “OAKE: A New Family of Implicitly Authenticated Diffie-Hellman Protocols,” (with Y. Zhao), Proceedings of 2013 ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security (CCS 2013), Berlin, Germany, November 2013, 1113-1128.

115. “On Revenue Maximization for Selling Multiple Independently Distributed Items,” (with X. Li), Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 110 (2013), 11232-11237.

116. “Quantum Replication at the Heisenberg Limit,” (with G. Chiribella and Y. Yang), Nature Communications 4 (2013), 1768.

117. “Privacy-Preserving Authenticated Key-Exchange over Internet," (with Y. Zhao), IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security 9(2014), 125-140.

118. "An n-to-1 Bidder Reduction for Multi-item Auctions and its Applications," Proceedings of 2015 ACM-SIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms (SODA15), San Diego, California, January 2015.

119. "On Solutions for the Maximum Revenue Multi-item Auction under Dominant-Strategy and Bayesian Implementations," arXiv:1607.03685, July 2016.

### Contact

Phone +86-10-62797261

E-mail: iiisdean@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn

Website: http://iiis.tsinghua.edu.cn/zh/yao/